Exercise is good for you, this we know. It helps build muscle, burn fat and make us all into happier, healthier people. But long before you start looking the way you want, there are other hidden, more immediate, molecular and immunological changes taking place inside your cells. Changes which could be responsible for protecting us from heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and even stave off old age and cancer.
You may think that molecular changes may not be that much of a big deal. Surely it is fat loss and muscle gain that are the best outcomes of exercise? Actually molecular changes affect the way genes and proteins are controlled inside cells. Genes can become more or less active, while proteins can be rapidly modified to function differently and carry out tasks such as moving glucose into cells more efficiently, or protect cells from harmful toxins.
Type 2 diabetes causes all kinds of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, blindness, kidney failure and nerve damage, and may lead to limb amputation. The underlying cause is the development of a heightened inflammatory state in the bodys tissue and cells. This damages cells and can eventually lead to insulin resistance and, ultimately, type 2 diabetes.
The main risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, a poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. However, we have found that even low intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, can increase the bodys insulin sensitivity. This means that people at risk of developing diabetes become less prone because they are able to metabolise glucose more efficiently.
In our study, we asked 20 sedentary people who were at risk of developing diabetes to walk briskly for 45 minutes, three times a week, for eight weeks. Although there was no change in their weight, blood pressure or cholesterol level, on average each participant lost a significant six centimetres from their waist circumference. And, more importantly, there was a reduction in their diabetic risk.
Immune system benefits
Interestingly, there were also exercise-induced changes in the participants monocytes an important immune cell that circulates in the bloodstream. This led to a reduction in the bodys inflammatory state, one of the main risks for type 2 diabetes.
When our body is under attack from foreign invaders such as microbes, immune cells such as monocytes change into microbe-eating macrophages. Their main function is to fight infection in our tissues and lungs. There are two main types of macrophages, M1 and M2. M1 macrophages are associated with pro-inflammatory responses and are necessary for aggressively fighting off infections. However, in obese people who do not exercise, these cells become active even in the absence of infection. This can lead to an unwanted, heightened inflammatory condition which may trigger diabetes.
On the other hand, M2 macrophages play a role in switching-off inflammation and are instrumental in damping-down the more aggressive M1s. So a healthy balance of M1 and M2 macrophages is crucial to maintain an optimal immune response for fighting infections and it may help prevent the heightened inflammatory condition which comes from lack of exercise and obesity too.
Other studies have also shown that exercise has a beneficial impact on tissues immune cell function and can reduce unnecessary inflammation. Exercise training in obese individuals has been found to reduce the level of tissue inflammation specifically because there are less macrophage cells present in fat tissue.
In addition, researchers have found a significant link between exercise and the balance of M1 and M2 macrophages. It has been shown that acute exercise in obese rats resulted in a shift from the aggressive M1 macrophages to the more passive M2 and that this reduction in the inflammatory state correlated with an improvement in insulin resistance.
Time to move
There is no definitive answer as to how much and what intensity of exercise is necessary to protect us from diabetes. Though some researchers have shown that while higher-intensity exercise improves overall fitness, there is little difference between high and low-intensity exercise in improving insulin sensitivity.
However, a new study has found that all forms of aerobic exercise in particular high-intensity interval training such as cycling and running can effectively stop ageing at the cellular level. The exercise caused cells to make more proteins for their energy-producing mitochondria and their protein-building ribosomes. Researchers also observed that these molecular changes occurring at the gene and protein levels happened very quickly after exercise and that the effects prevented damage to important proteins in the cells and improve the way in which insulin functions.
Although you might not see the changes you want immediately, even gentle exercise can make a big difference to the way the bodys cells behave. This means that exercise could have far-reaching health benefits for other inflammatory associated diseases and possibly protect us against ageing and cancer too.
Fitness Star Jackie Warner Arrested For Felony Assault With A Deadly Weapon Is Ambien & 'Sleep Driving' To Blame??2017-02-28 07:13:58
This is so scary!!
Jackie Warner — who you may remember from Bravo‘s Work Out — was arrested on Friday for felony assault with a deadly weapon after a bizarre incident which involved her reportedly “sleep driving”! OMG!
So here’s what happened.
The next thing the fitness expert knows, she’s in the hospital.
According to reports, Miz Warner was “sleep driving” (while only wearing underwear) when she crashed her car into a pole in West Hollywood. Once cops arrived to the scene, it’s said she backed her vehicle into a cop car, nearly hitting one of the deputies!
She was understandably arrested with a $60K bail. Law enforcement sources say she blew right around the legal limit of .08 during a breathalyzer test.
We’ll keep you updated as we learn more about this crazzzy case!
[Image via Owen Beiny/WENN.]
Most of us have heard at some point that we should be walking around 10,000 steps per day. This figure is now commonplace across many of the health apps and fitness bands that are downloaded and sold in the millions. But how useful is it? Does the tech actually work?
Well one researcher, who gave a talk at the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting in Boston, has called them into question. Greg Hager, a professor of computer science at John Hopkins University, claims that this 10,000-stepgoal, and many other targets that health apps and technology use, may be doing more harm than good as they are not grounded in science.
Some of you might wear Fitbits or something equivalent, and I bet every now and then it gives you that cool little message ‘you did 10,000 steps today,’ Hager said at the meeting. But why is 10,000 steps important? What’s big about 10,000?
It turns out that the origin of the 10,000 steps a day minimum isnot actually based on any hard science. It seems to have roots in one study conducted in Japan during the 1960s that found health benefits associated with men burning an extra 2,000 calories a week. This, the researchers say, equated to about10,000 steps every day. In fact, early pedometers sold in Japan during this period were even known as manpo-kei, which translates as 10,000 steps meter, and becamepopular among Japanese walking clubs.
But is that the right number for any of you in this room? Who knows? It’s just a number that’s now built into the apps, Hager continued. Without any scientific evidence base, how do you know that any of these apps are good for you? They may even be harmful.
While the arbitrary limit may be misleading, others dismiss the outright harm.A study released last year found that fitness trackers did not help the participants lose more weight when compared to more conventional weight loss strategies, though the authors of that study did point out that the push to get people moving more is clearly beneficial. We need to be careful not to throw the baby out with the bathwater, one of the authors, Professor John Jakicic, told The Guardian.
The biggest concern with these apps, however, may relate to those that purport to help manage mental health and medication. In these cases, there could be serious margins of error that could genuinely put people at risk. So while walking an extra 10,000 steps per week is probably not going to be a bad thing, the reliance on fitness apps to manage more serious conditions may not be so healthy.
The 28-year-old Timur Gareyev has set a world record for blindfold chess of 48 games at once and the US grandmaster says he is ready to take on 55 games simultaneously
(CNN)A New Year health kick doesn’t have to mean detox, denial and downright misery.